The current report examines the related issues of child labour and youth employment in the context of Indonesia. Guided by observed outcomes in terms of schooling, work activities and status in the labour market, the report considers the economic as well as the social determinants of child labour and youth employment. The report was developed jointly by the Government and the three UCW partner agencies. As such, it provides an important common basis for action in addressing child labour and youth employment issues. Part 1 of the report focuses on understanding children’s work and Part 2 on understanding youth employment outcomes. Part 3 of the report addresses national responses to child labour and youth employment concerns.
Posts in category Background Resources
This Report examines the related issues of child labour and youth marginalisation in the Arab States. It focuses in particular on the non-rich countries and territories covered by the ILO Regional Office for Arab States (i.e., Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Yemen and the Occupied Palestinian Territory). All are conflict or conflict-affected societies where concerns relating to the well-being of child and youth are acute and where better information to inform policy is needed. All are also societies that have been affected directly and indirectly by the popular movements known collectively as the Arab uprisings, and by the calls for social justice and decent work that are at the roots of these movements. The situation of children and youth in Syria since the outbreak of the war is beyond the scope of the current Report. Clearly, however, the massive disruptions and dislocations associated with the on-going political violence in the country have had a devastating impact on the country’s children and youth, and measures to mitigate this impact are urgently needed.
Overcoming the twin challenges of child labour and youth employment will be critical to Uganda’s progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Estimates presented in this report indicate that over 2.4 million children aged 6-13 years are in employment. At the same time, most young people remain trapped in informal sector jobs offering little prospect for advancement or for escaping poverty and exploitation. The effects of child labour and poor youth employment outcomes are well-documented: both can lead to social vulnerability, societal marginalisation and deprivation, and both can permanently impair lifetime patterns of employment and pay.
Overcoming the twin challenges of child labour and youth employment will be critical to progress towards the Millennium Development Goals in Laos. Estimates presented in this report indicate that some 71,000 Lao children aged 6-13 years still work in employment. At the same time, youth employment is dominated by low-productivity, unremunerated work concentrated in the agriculture sector. Only one of every four employed youth earns enough to escape poverty. The effects of child labour and youth employment difficulties are well-documented: both can lead to social vulnerability and societal marginalisation, and both can permanently impair productive potential and therefore influence lifetime patterns of employment and pay.
The Twin Challenges of Child Labour and Educational Marginalisation in the East and South-East Asia Region: Preparing for a Post 2015 World
This study looks at child labour in eight countries – Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Vietnam and Mongolia – covered by the ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Much remains to be done in the eight study countries to overcome the twin challenges of child labour and educational marginalisation. Although the eight countries have collectively shown improvements in terms of child labour and primary school attendance, child labour continues to be high in several of them and a significant number of primary school-aged children are out of school, often due to the demands of work. Both child labour and education marginalisation can lead to social vulnerability and societal marginalisation, and both can permanently impair productive potential and therefore influence lifetime patterns of employment and pay. Child labour is also often associated with direct threats to children’s health and well-being. Accelerating progress against child labour and educational marginalisation therefore remains a critical development priority.
Overcoming the twin challenges of child labour and the youth decent work deficit will be critical to Ghana’s progress towards realising its broader social development goals. Evidence presented in this report indicates that 1.9 million Ghanaian children remain trapped in child labour. Of even greater concern, the evidence points to a very substantial increase in children’s work in recent years, contrary to the regional and global child labour trends. At the same time, young persons in the 15-34 years age range are concentrated overwhelmingly in low skill jobs in the informal economy that offer little prospect for advancement or for escaping poverty and exploitation. The effects of child labour and the decent work deficit facing youth are well-documented: both can lead to social vulnerability, societal marginalisation and deprivation, and both can permanently impair lifetime patterns of employment and pay.
The study looks at differences by sex in key dimensions of the child labour phenomenon in Bangladesh and India – its extent, nature, and effect on education outcomes. It addresses what type of activity is more common among girls, and the extent to which girls’ work experience differs from that of boys. The study encompasses not only girls and boys at work in economic activity, but also those performing household chores in their own homes. The latter group of children, dominated by girls, is frequently overlooked in child labour statistics and in analyses of child labour. This can result in gender biases both in the understanding of child labour and in policies addressing it.
In 2011 the Understanding Children’s Work program launched an extensive effort to map the evidence on the impact of public policy on child labour. On the basis of the wide-ranging evidence we drafted two working papers, each with a distinct aim. The current paper is the overarching result of the mapping exercise. It reviews the impact of interventions falling in seven broad intervention clusters: (i) social protection, (ii) education, (iii) labour markets, (iv) human settlement, (v) microfinance, (vi) community driven development, and (vii) health and family planning. A second paper, entitled “Cash Transfers and Child Labour”, takes an in-depth look at the effects of cash transfer programs focusing on issues such as heterogeneity, spillover effects, long-run effects, and protection from shocks.
Using data from BRIGHT, an integrated program that aims to improve school participation in rural communities in Burkina Faso, we investigate the impact of school subsidies and increased access to education on child work. Regression discontinuity estimates demonstrate that, while BRIGHT substantially improved school participation, it did not reduce – in fact may have increased – children’s participation in economic activities and household chores. This combination of increased school participation and work can be explained by the introduction of a simple non-convexity in the standard model of altruistic utility maximizing households. If education programs are implemented to achieve a combination of increased school participation and a reduction in child work they may either have to be combined with different interventions that effectively reduce child work or they may have to be tuned more carefully to the incentives and constraints the child laborer faces.
The latest ILO global estimates for the year 2012 indicate that both the share and absolute numbers of adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work is considerable, with 47.5 million adolescents aged 15 to 17 years in hazardous work, accounting for 13 percent of this age group. These stark numbers underscore the urgent need to address hazardous work among adolescents. Hazardous work during this crucial period of young persons’ lives poses immediate threats to health and safety and can create huge barriers that impede a young person from transiting successfully to adulthood and working life. The policy implications are equally clear: national policies should be directed towards removing youth from hazardous jobs or towards removing the hazardous conditions encountered by youth in the workplace. Alongside these efforts, removed youth and other educationally-disadvantaged youth should be afforded second chance learning opportunities to improve their future prospects of securing jobs meeting basic decent work criteria.